Toàn bộ câu lệnh trong Linux

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Toàn bộ câu lệnh sử dụng trong Server Linux từ A – Z

Linux Commands Line A – Z

A     Command Description
# alias hh=’history’ set an alias for a command – hh = history
# apropos …keyword display a list of commands that pertain to keywords of a program , useful when you know what your program does, but you don’t know the name of the command
# apt-cache search [package] returns list of packages which corresponds string “searched-packages”
# apt-cdrom install [package] install / upgrade a deb package from cdrom
# apt-get install [package] install / upgrade a deb package
# apt-get update update the package list
# apt-get upgrade upgrade all of the installed packages
# apt-get remove [package] remove a deb package from system
# apt-get check verify correct resolution of dependencies
# apt-get clean clean up cache from packages downloaded
# arch show architecture of machine(1)
# cat example.txt | awk ‘NR%2==1’ remove all even lines from example.txt
# echo a b c | awk ‘{print $1}’ view the first column of a line
# echo a b c | awk ‘{print $1,$3}’ view the first and third column of a line
B    Command Description
# badblocks -v /dev/hda1 check bad blocks on disk hda1
# bunzip2 file1.bz2 decompress a file called ‘file1.bz2’
# bzip2 file1 compress a file called ‘file1’
# find /var/log -name ‘*.log’ | tar cv –files-from=- | bzip2 > log.tar.bz2 find all files with ‘.log’ extention and make an bzip archive
C      Command Description
# cal 2007 show the timetable of 2007
# cat /proc/cpuinfo show information CPU info
# cat /proc/interrupts show interrupts
# cat /proc/meminfo verify memory use
# cat /proc/swaps show file(s) swap
# cat /proc/version show version of the kernel
# cat /proc/net/dev show network adpters and statistics
# cat /proc/mounts show mounted file system(s)
# cat file1 view the contents of a file starting from the first row
# cat -n file1 number row of a file
# cd /home enter to directory ‘/ home’
# cd .. go back one level
# cd ../.. go back two levels
# cd go to home directory
# cd ~user1 go to home directory
# cd – go to previous directory
# cd-paranoia -B rip audio tracks from a CD to wav files
# cd-paranoia — rip first three audio tracks from a CD to wav files
# cdrecord -v gracetime=2 dev=/dev/cdrom -eject blank=fast -force clean a rewritable cdrom
# cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom cd.iso burn an ISO image
# gzip -dc cd_iso.gz | cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom – burn a compressed ISO image
# cdrecord –scanbus scan bus to identify the channel scsi
# chage -E 2005-12-31 user1 set deadline for user password
# chattr +a file1 allows write opening of a file only append mode
# chattr +c file1 allows that a file is compressed / decompressed automatically by the kernel
# chattr +d file1 makes sure that the program ignores Dump the files during backup
# chattr +i file1 makes it an immutable file, which can not be removed, altered, renamed or linked
# chattr +s file1 allows a file to be deleted safely
# chattr +S file1 makes sure that if a file is modified changes are written in synchronous mode as with sync
# chattr +u file1 allows you to recover the contents of a file even if it is canceled
# chgrp group1 file1 change group of files
# chmod ugo+rwx directory1 set permissions reading (r), write (w) and (x) access to users owner (u) group (g) and others (o)
# chmod go-rwx directory1 remove permits reading (r), write (w) and (x) access to users group (g) and others (or
# chmod u+s /bin/file1 set SUID bit on a binary file – the user that running that file gets same privileges as owner
# chmod u-s /bin/file1 disable SUID bit on a binary file
# chmod g+s /home/public set SGID bit on a directory – similar to SUID but for directory
# chmod g-s /home/public disable SGID bit on a directory
# chmod o+t /home/public set STIKY bit on a directory – allows files deletion only to legitimate owners
# chmod o-t /home/public disable STIKY bit on a directory
# chown user1 file1 change owner of a file
# chown -R user1 directory1 change user owner of a directory and all the files and directories contained inside
# chown user1:group1 file1 change user and group ownership of a file
# chsh change shell command
# chsh –list-shells nice command to know if you have to remote into another box
# clock -w save date changes on BIOS
# comm -1 file1 file2 compare contents of two files by deleting only unique lines from ‘file1’
# comm -2 file1 file2 compare contents of two files by deleting only unique lines from ‘file2’
# comm -3 file1 file2 compare contents of two files by deleting only the lines that appear on both files
# cp file1 file2 copying a file
# cp dir/* . copy all files of a directory within the current work directory
# cp -a /tmp/dir1 . copy a directory within the current work directory
# cp -a dir1 dir2 copy a directory
# find /home/user1 -name ‘*.txt’ | xargs cp -av –target-directory=/home/backup/ –parents find and copy all files with ‘.txt’ extention from a directory to another
D      Command Description
# date show system date
# date 041217002007.00 set date and time – MonthDayhoursMinutesYear.Seconds
# dd bs=1M if=/dev/hda | gzip | ssh user@ip_addr ‘dd of=hda.gz’ make a backup of a local hard disk on remote host via ssh
# dd if=/dev/sda of=/tmp/file1 backup content of the harddrive to a file
# dd if=/dev/hda of=/dev/fd0 bs=512 count=1 make a copy of MBR (Master Boot Record) to floppy
# dd if=/dev/fd0 of=/dev/hda bs=512 count=1 restore MBR from backup copy saved to floppy
# df -h show list of partitions mounted
# dhclient eth0 active interface ‘eth0’ in dhcp mode
# diff file1 file2 find differences between two files
# dmidecode -q show hardware system components – (SMBIOS / DMI)
# dos2unix filedos.txt fileunix.txt convert a text file format from MSDOS to UNIX
# dosfsck /dev/hda1 repair / check integrity of dos filesystems on disk hda1
# dpkg-query -W -f=’${Installed-Size;10}t${Package}n’ | sort -k1,1n show the used space by installed deb packages, sorting by size (debian, ubuntu and alike)
# dpkg -i [package.deb] install / upgrade a deb package
# dpkg -r [package] remove a deb package from the system
# dpkg -l show all deb packages installed on the system
# dpkg -l | grep httpd show all deb packages with the name “httpd”
# dpkg -s [package] obtain information on a specific package installed on system
# dpkg -L [package] show list of files provided by a package installed on system
# dpkg –contents [package.deb] show list of files provided by a package not yet installed
# dpkg -S /bin/ping verify which package belongs to a given file
# du -sh dir1 estimate space used by directory ‘dir1’
# du -sk * | sort -rn show size of the files and directories sorted by size
# dump -0aj -f /tmp/home0.bak /home make a full backup of directory ‘/home’
# dump -1aj -f /tmp/home0.bak /home make a incremental backup of directory ‘/home’
E     Command Description
# e2fsck /dev/hda1 repair / check integrity of ext2 filesystem on disk hda1
# e2fsck -j /dev/hda1 repair / check integrity of ext3 filesystem on disk hda1
# ethtool eth0 show network statistics of eth0
F   Command Description
# fdformat -n /dev/fd0 format a floppy disk
# cp file file1 outputs the mime type of the file as text
# find / -name file1 search file and directory into root filesystem from ‘/’
# find / -user user1 search files and directories belonging to ‘user1’
# find /home/user1 -name \*.bin search files with ‘. bin’ extension within directory ‘/ home/user1’
# find /usr/bin -type f -atime +100 search binary files are not used in the last 100 days
# find /usr/bin -type f -mtime -10 search files created or changed within 10 days
# find / -name *.rpm -exec chmod 755 ‘{}’ \; search files with ‘.rpm’ extension and modify permits
# find / -xdev -name \*.rpm search files with ‘.rpm’ extension ignoring removable partitions as cdrom, pen-drive, etc.…
# find / -perm -u+s view all files on the system with SUID configured
# free -m displays status of RAM in megabytes
# fsck /dev/hda1 repair / check integrity of linux filesystem on disk hda1
# fsck.ext2 /dev/hda1 repair / check integrity of ext2 filesystem on disk hda1
# fsck.ext3 /dev/hda1 repair / check integrity of ext3 filesystem on disk hda1
# fsck.vfat /dev/hda1 repair / check integrity of fat filesystem on disk hda1
# fsck.msdos /dev/hda1 repair / check integrity of dos filesystem on disk hda1
# fuser -km /mnt/hda2 force umount when the device is busy
G     Command Description
# gpg -c file1 encrypt a file with GNU Privacy Guard
# gpg file1.gpg decrypt a file with GNU Privacy Guard
# grep Aug /var/log/messages look up words “Aug” on file ‘/var/log/messages’
# grep ^Aug /var/log/messages look up words that begin with “Aug” on file ‘/var/log/messages’
# grep [0-9] /var/log/messages select from file ‘/var/log/messages’ all lines that contain numbers
# grep Aug -R /var/log/* search string “Aug” at directory ‘/var/log’ and below
# groupadd [group] create a new group
# groupdel [group] delete a group
# groupmod -n moon sun rename a group from moon to sun
# grpck check correct syntax and file format of ‘/etc/group’ and groups existence
# gunzip file1.gz decompress a file called ‘file1.gz’
# gzip file1 compress a file called ‘file1’
# gzip -9 file1 compress with maximum compression
H      Command Description
# hdparm -i /dev/hda displays the characteristics of a hard-disk
# hdparm -tT /dev/sda perform test reading on a hard-disk
# head -2 file1 view first two lines of a file
# host www.example.com lookup hostname to resolve name to ip address and viceversa
# hostname show hostname of system
I    Command Description
# iconv -l lists known encodings
# iconv -f fromEncoding -t toEncoding inputFile > outputFile converting the coding of characters from one format to another
# find . -maxdepth 1 -name *.jpg -print -exec convert batch resize files in the current directory and send them to a thumbnails directory (requires convert from Imagemagick)
# ifconfig eth0 show configuration of an ethernet network card
# ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 configure IP Address
# ifconfig eth0 promisc configure ‘eth0’ in promiscuous mode to gather packets (sniffing)
# ifdown eth0 disable an interface ‘eth0’
# ifup eth0 activate an interface ‘eth0’
# init 0 shutdown system(2)
# ip link show show link status of all network interfaces
# iptables -t filter -L show all chains of filtering table
# iptables -t nat -L show all chains of nat table
# iptables -t filter -F clear all rules from filtering table
# iptables -t nat -F clear all rules from table nat
# iptables -t filter -X delete any chains created by user
# iptables -t filter -A INPUT -p tcp –dport telnet -j ACCEPT allow telnet connections to input
# iptables -t filter -A OUTPUT -p tcp –dport http -j DROP block HTTP connections to output
# iptables -t filter -A FORWARD -p tcp –dport pop3 -j ACCEPT allow POP3 connections to forward chain
# iptables -t filter -A INPUT -j LOG –log-prefix Logging on input chain
# iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE configure a PAT (Port Address Traslation) on eth0 masking outbound packets
# iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -d 192.168.0.1 -p tcp -m tcp –dport 22 -j DNAT –to-destination 10.0.0.2:22 redirect packets addressed to a host to another host
# iwconfig eth1 show wireless networks
# iwlist scan wifi scanning to display the wireless connections available
K    Command Description
# kill -9 process_